The approaching examination created a tense atmosphere on the campus.
- atmosphere pressure 大气压 working atmosphere工作环境， 工作氛围
All the water of the earth's surface is included in the hydrosphere.
The hydrosphere and the lithosphere together form the earth's surface.
Hydrogen and oxygen are gases.
Oxide is a part of our daily life.
Soft drinks usually contain carbon dioxide.
Two parts hydrogen, one part oxygen, you'll get water every time.
He is the core of the working group.
The crust on the snow was thick enough for us to walk on it,
Parents often use mantles for their babies to keep warm.
The captain determines the latitude and longitude of his ship.
Our position is 40 degrees north latitude.
I could see a ship on the horizon.
- The board consists of vertical and horizontal lines. 棋盘由垂直线和水平线组成
We are currently flying at an altitude of 8,000 metres.
There was a great flood disaster in East China.
- Has a typo ever had disastrous consequences?
- a disaster film/movie 灾难片
A mishap prevented him from attending the routine company meeting.
- What is your biggest camping mishap?
If the forecast had been wrong, the consequences could have been catastrophic.
A hurricane would be a calamity for this low-lying coastal region.
- cause a calamity 酿成灾祸
If you work hard without rest, you will endanger your health.
- What is the world's most endangered animal?
If you are rude to the boss, your chances of success may be jeopardised.
- jeopardise sb/s life危及某人的生命
Jealousy is an extremely destructive emotion.
- destroy v.摧毁
- To destroy 121 enemy aircraft is no mean record.
What changed the equation that year was El Nino.
The flowers are grown in the greenhouse.
- the greenhouse effect 温室效应 a greenhouse gas 温室气体
Snow is an almost unknown phenomenon in Egypt.
The boy put his hand into the money bag and drew out a pebble,
He picked all the pins up with a magnet.
- magnetic adj.磁的,有磁性的； 有吸引力的
- Her glacial beauty is magnetic.
This mountain area is rich in iron ore.
China is rich in mineral resources
They used marble to build the steps.
Have you bought the quartz clock?
His grave is made of granite.
- bite on granite白费力气， 徒劳无功
- However everything is just in vain with bite on granite.
A gust of wind blew the leaves off the trees.
We are enjoying the cool breeze that comes from the lake.
The monsoon brings rain to us. - monsoon season 雨季
We got our roof blown off in a gale last night. - a severe gale —阵大风
The hurricane flung their motorboat upon the rocks.
When a tornado touches the ground, it does a lot of damage.
The typhoon is gathering strength.
The volcano erupted and two small towns were buried under metres of hot ash, mud and bits of molten rock.
- sit on a volcano处境危险
Hot lava erupted from the crust. - eruption n.喷发， 爆发
- The eruption of a volcano is awesome.
Some types of minerals are made when magma cools and solidifies.
His theory violates current thermodynamic laws. thermodynamics n.热力学
The smog was so bad that schoolchildren were advised to stay indoors.
- smoggy adj.烟雾弥漫的
- My asthma tends to flare up on smoggy days.
- It is smoggy and not much can be seen.
Petrol fumes from cars are poisoning the atmosphere.
She could hardly recognise her son through a mist of tears.
- misty adj.有雾的； 模糊的 The air was cold and misty.
- lost in the mists of time淹没在时间的迷雾中
A terrible tsunami followed the earthquake.
Many areas in Africa have suffered severe drought this year.
Since the flooding began last month, 16 people have died statewide
- flood V,淹没； 充满n.洪水
A torrent of water poured down the mountain.
Several countries in eastern Europe are counting the losses caused by yesterday's earthquake.
- quake v.震动， 颤动
- The quake destroyed mud buildings in many remote villages.
- I just stood there quaking with fear.
- The earth suddenly began to quake.
- This voice made the boys gasp and quake.
The discovery of seismic activity suggests geological activity could provide large amounts of heat and minerals. - a seismic wave 地震波
Yesterday's avalanche destroyed several trees.
He climbed a tree to view the surrounding terrain.
The trees and the mountains made the landscape very beautiful.
It is generally thought that Columbus discovered the American continents.
- continental adj.大陆的， 大陆性的 - continental breakfast 欧式早餐
This cave was used by smugglers in the eighteenth century.
The narrow path leads to a wooden hut on the cliff.
The glacier dislocated the great stones.
In the swamp, we were beset by mosquitoes.
The Nile Delta used to be a fertile land.
Once there were 70 million buffalo roaming the Great Plains
- In general, a plain carpet makes a room look bigger. plain style朴素的风格
The atmosphere is thin on the plateau. - plateau climate 高原气候
Oasis symbolises a hope in desert areas.
There are people in almost every habitable part of this globe.
- global adj.全球的；总体的 - Global warming is a real problem.
- On a global scale - travel around the globe 环游世界
In the northern hemisphere, you can hardly see the Magellanic Clouds.
- hemispheric adj.半球形状的； 半球的
The equator is an imaginary line around the middle of the earth.
- equal adj.平等的
- We will be justly demanding equal rights at work.
The polar bear's habitat is the icy waters of the Arctic. - the Arctic Ocean 北冰洋
- The bathroom, with its ancient facilities, is positively arctic.
Because of the extreme cold, the environment in the Antarctic is uniquely fragile.
- ant （对面的against） + arctic （北极）
English is spoken from pole to pole. the South Pole 南极
- The truck crashed into a telegraph pole. n.柱子;杆子;棍;杖;
- For six months of the year, there is hardly any light at the poles.
In these polar regions, the balance of nature has already been disrupted.
- a polar bear北极熊
The earth's axis is the line between the North and South Poles.
- The axis powers in World War two were germany, Italy and japan.
Relations between the two countries have deteriorated sharply in recent weeks.
- deterioration n.恶化， 变坏
- The food undergoes no deterioration in the tropics.
Grief aggravated her illness. - aggravate the differences加深分歧
- gravity n.重力 aggregate v./n.合计， 总计
- An apple falls down because of gravity.
- In the aggregate, our losses have been relatively small.
A dishonest action like that will degrade you. - degradation n.恶化
The antivirus software should often be upgraded.
- upgrade （sth.） to sth.（把某物） 升级为某物
The waves erode the rocks on the shore.
- erosion n.侵蚀， 腐蚀
- As their roots are strong and penetrating, they prevent erosion.
This dish is a cross between Asian and Mediterranean food.
The Atlantic coast is within sight of the hotel.
What a beautiful and pacific place this is！
- Asian-Pacific region 亚太地区
- pacify (v.平息， 安抚， 使平静)
- I bought an ice cream to pacify my crying daughter.
These creatures live in the depth of the Pacific Ocean.
- an ocean of / oceans of 大量 - There are an ocean of flowers.
- The Internet serves everyone with an ocean of information.
It is true that a lot of people like marine plants as their food.
- a marine product海产品； 船用产品
Navigation is a game for brave people.
- navigator n.航海家； 导航员， 领航员
The gulf extends northward.
They walked along the beach, talking and laughing.
He is going to live by the coast for the sake of his health.
His ship pulled in to the shore at midnight.
The gravitational attraction between the moon and the earth causes tides.
- Time and tide wait for no man.岁月不等人。
- at low tide退潮时， 低潮时
- The beach is covered in shells at low tide.
He was swept away by the current.
- I felt a current of cool air blowing in my face.
Before we drink at a brook, it is good to know its source.
On either bank of the stream stand rows of willow trees.
I've heard from reliable sources that the company is in trouble.
- resource n.资源
- It depends on how you utilise your resource.
The sea is shallow here.
- shallow-hearted adj.薄情的
- I think he is shallow, vain and untrustworthy.
- Put the milk in a shallow dish.
Superficial scratches can be easily removed.
- a superficial injury 皮外伤
In flat open country, there is plenty of grass for the cattle to feed on.
The process of negotiation was not entirely smooth.
- smoothly adv.光滑地； 平稳地； 流畅地
- The work is going on smoothly.
You'd better give us a rough idea of your price.
- roughly adv.粗糙地； 粗略地
- He was roughly the same age as myself.
We walked across the fields on the sandy path.
The ground in this part of the country is poor and stony.
In some places the cliff was almost vertical, and too dangerous to climb.
A long steep path leads to a teahouse with a grand view of the sea.
There are few parallels between American football and European football.
- unparalleled adj.无比的,无双的
- The scenery of this country is unparalleled.
The only access to the garden is by a narrow path at the side of the house.
- narrow down减少； 限制
- I cannot narrow down the rules for this game.
Oceania is a separate landmass, but it is separated from Asia by very shallow water.
Hawaii and Alaska are not on the mainland of the United States.
His house is located on the tip of the peninsula.
The current political climate in that country is favourable for foreign investment.
- in the present economic climate 在当前的经济形势下
In warm weather, you should wear clothing that is cool and comfortable.
Nowadays, few people like to study meteorology.
- meteorological adj.气象的
The weather is mild today; it is neither hot nor cold.
- a mild climate温和的气候
The workers are installing a heating system.
- heat n.热； 强烈感情v.（使） 变热
- central heating中央暖气系统
The wind was strong all day, but it moderated in the evening,
- a moderate climate 温和的气候
- He was an easygoing man of very moderate views.
- He is moderate in drinking.
The blood of a warm-blooded animal remains around the same temperature both on warm and cold days.
- warmth n.温暖； 热情
- There's a feeling of warmth and trust here.
The thermal energy has become more and more important.
He lives in the tropics.
- tropical adj.热带的
- I had deliberately picked a city with a tropical climate.
It is difficult to grow fruit in arid desert areas.
- an arid desert干旱的荒漠
His eyes were moist with tears.
- moisture n.潮气， 湿气； 水分
- Salt absorbs moisture from the air.
The damp match won't strike.
- a damp climate潮湿的气候
- dampness n,潮湿
- I guess dampness at sea may be the cause of rust.
The milk powder has lumped together because my home is so humid.
- humid conditions湿热的天气状况
- Visitors can expect hot and humid conditions.
- humidity n.高温潮湿； 湿度
- The humidity of soil helps to grow.
The snowy weather lasted the whole time we were there.
- snow n,雪
Sweet potatoes decayed after the frost.
It hailed during the night. n,雹，冰雹
- Jill saw him and hailed him. v赞扬； 招呼；
- The deal was hailed by the Defence Secretary.
The sun thawed the ice and melted the snow.
- thaw （sth.） out （使冷冻食品） 解冻；
The bad news cast a chill over the whole family.
- chilly adj.寒冷的
- I feel chilly without a coat.
The weatherman predicted a freeze for tonight.
- freezer n.冰柜 freezing adj.极冷的
- The cinema was freezing.
Hohhot is a frigid city in winter.
There was a tremble in her voice.
- tremble all over 浑身颤抖
She shivered because she was worried and afraid.
- shiver with cold 冷得发抖
An express train thundered through the station.
- thunderstorm n.雷雨
During the storm, flashes of lightning appeared in the sky.
- lighten v.使变轻;（使） 发亮 - lighter n.打火机
- lightly adv.轻轻地； 轻松地
Our ship was tossed about on the stormy sea.
- storm n,暴风雨
For the past six hours, the downpour had been continuous.
There have been four years of below-average rainfall.
We've only had a few sprinkles of rain recently.
- sprinkle sth. on sth.把某物洒/撒到某物上
A rainbow is usually seen after a heavy rain.
The weatherman predicts showers this afternoon.
The maximum temperature in July may be 36 degrees Celsius.
- Fahrenheit adj.华氏的n.华氏温度
After the storm, there will be a sharp drop in temperature.
- take the temperature 量温度
The recent statement of the president forecasts a change in the situation.
The mountain peaks are covered with snow all year round.
- a mountain peak 山峰
The old lady can only mount the stairs with difficulty.
The northern side of the mountain is almost vertical.
- mountainous adj.多山的
A range of hills rose on our left.
- in the range of在... 范围内； 在....射程内
The sky above the ridge of the mountains brightened.
He ran up the slope to the top of the hill.
The valley was hidden from view in the mist.
- in a valley在山谷里
The path steepened as they climbed the hillside. as 时间副词从句
The house on the hill overlooks the village.
- be easily overlooked容易被忽略的
Only in the southern part of Taiwan have I seen such scenery.
Austria lies to the southeast of Germany.
Ireland is in the southwest of the British Isles.
Snow in October is nothing strange in northeast China.
There is a large hilly area in the northwest.
The eastern situation is similarly intense.
She has studied the cultures of oriental countries,
Such a difficult operation may not succeed, but it's an inevitable gamble.
- evitable adj.可避免的
He suffered irreversible brain damage from the incident.
The patient is breathing irregularly.
- regularly adv.有规律地
Your bright red coat would be quite inappropriate for a funeral.
- appropriate adj.恰当的， 合适的
El Nino will result in the abnormal weather.
- an abnormal climate 异常气候
The sediment of coffee will settle.
River sediments gradually silted up the harbour.
We left the car and struck out along the muddy track.
- mud n.泥
Bricks and dishes are made from various kinds of clay.
The children were outside, playing happily in the dirt.
- dirty adj.脏的； 下流的
The disease occurs most frequently in rural areas.
They proposed setting up a school in the suburbs.
- suburban adj.郊区的
We live on the outskirts of the city.
She came from a remote village.
- a remote control 遥控器
So how should they escape from these desolate canyons?
It snows all year round in that distant little village.
- the distant past遥远的过去
- distance n.距离， 间距； 远处
We stayed in adjacent rooms.
- adjacent to与... 毗连的
All medicines are toxic.
- toxic waste有毒废物 highly toxic剧毒的
- poisonous adj,有毒的
Waste water from the factory is the main cause of pollution in local rivers.
- pollute v.弄脏， 污染
- pollution control 污染控制
Coal is a heavy pollutant.
- atmospheric pollutants 大气污染物
The river was contaminated with waste.
- contamination n.污染
- contaminated water受到污染的水
He devoted all his life to the research of the agricultural geology.
The border incident lead to the war between the two countries.
- within the borders of 在... 境内
There is no margin for error in our plan. n,边缘； 页边空白； 余地
- allow a greater margin of允许有更大的... 余地
We feel it's pretty good and we also offer some good fringe benefits.
It is generally accepted that earthquakes are caused by two tectonic plates bumping into each other.
We are searching for his corpse among the debris after the explosion.
The door opened just a crack.
- cause a crack弄出裂缝
There are wide gaps in my knowledge of history.
- the generation gap 代沟
You're all doing a splendid job; keep up the good work.
- a splendid chance极好的机会
He was born in the purple and was brought up in the grand palace.
The king lived in this magnificent palace.
- magnificence n.宏伟， 壮丽
I've discovered a super restaurant near here!
There is an interesting programme on television tonight.
- interested adj.感兴趣的； 有利害关系的
She made a dramatic speech at the meeting.
- drama n.戏剧
- a dramatic event令人印象深刻的事件
From his attic window, he looked out over a beautiful wilderness.
- wild adj.野生的； 荒芜的
- a wilderness area保留自然环境面貌的地区
The baby's mother deserted him soon after giving birth.
- desertification n.荒漠化， 沙漠化
- a cultural desert 文化沙漠
The land is severely eroded as a result of widespread deforesting and intensive farming.
- deforestation n.毁林， 滥伐森林
That remote barren land has blossomed into rich granaries.
- a barren desert荒漠
There's enough to transform barren coral atolls into fertile groves.
I fertilised the lawn and pulled out the weeds.
- fertiliser (= fertilizer) n.肥料
This toy is operated by solar energy.
- solar system 太阳系 solar energy 太阳能
All traditional Chinese festivals are lunar calendar festivals.
- a lunar eclipse 月食
The Islamic calendar has fewer days than the Gregorian calendar.
- lunar calendar 阴历
The beauty of the sunrise is beyond description.
- at sunrise日出时
By sunset we had covered thirty miles.
- at sunset 日落时 a sunset industry 夕阳产业(逐渐没落的产业) sunset glow晚霞
It will take about an hour to reach full eclipse stage.
- a solar/lunar eclipse 日 /月食
The street lights go on at dusk.
- by dusk到黄昏时
Our week on the tropical island was heaven.
This club is a sportsmanˈs paradise.
I was sitting in the garden, enjoying the sunshine.
- be bathed in sunshine沐浴在阳光中
He tried to shade his house with thick trees.
- shady adj.成荫的； 阴凉的
- provide shade提供阴凉处
The willow's shadow falls on the lake.
- cast a shadow投下阴影
When water changes to water vapour, we say it evaporates.
The pool of water on the playground evaporated in the sun.
- evaporation n.蒸发
Circulating blood helps transfer the body heat out to the air.
- circulation n.流通， 循环； 传播
Clouds usually precipitate as rain or snow.
- precipitation n,沉淀； 降水量； 陡然下落
This reservoir gives water to the whole city.
They were filled with wonder at the new waterfall.
Social life is the fountain of wisdom for writers.
It can be quite windy there, especially in spring.
- springtime n.春季， 春天
Dew dripped from the leaves.
Tears poured from her eyes.
- downpour n.倾盆大雨
They drain the swamp and turn it into fertile land.
- drainage n,排水； 排水装置
Be careful! Your paintbrush is dripping.
- drip down 滴下
She attempted to drown herself in the river.
Now, Peter, make a wish and blow out the candles.
- strike a blow for维护（某种信念、 原则等）
Don't puff cigarette smoke in my face.
In a moment more, the crowd began to gush forth from the doors of the church.
- gush out涌出， 喷出gush from从... 喷出
There will be dense fog in northern parts of the country tomorrow.
- density n.密度
I was surprised by the intensity of his anxiety.
- intense adj.强烈的； 紧张的
Intensive care in hospitals is given to the seriously ill.
- intensively adv.深入地， 密集地
- intensive care unit (ICU)重症监护室
The sun emerged from behind the clouds.
- emerge out of从... 里出来
The good news was flashed across the country.
- flash through sb/s mind闪过某人的脑海
The smell of roses floated around.
An increasing number of people are concerned about the pollution of the environment.
- environmental adj.自然环境保护的； 有关环境的
The polluted waste is often dumped unceremoniously, making the surrounding land infertile.
- surrounding environment 周围环境
I had almost decided to accept their conditions at that time.
- accept a condition 接受条件
Due to poor management, they finally got into a difficult financial situation.
- situate v.使坐落于， 使位于
- in this situation在这种场合/形势/情况下
In fact, nature is much better at recycling than we humans are.
- destroy nature破坏大自然
It is natural that he should fall in love with such a beautiful girl.
- naturally adv.自然地； 天然地
This fruit juice contains absolutely no artificial flavourings or colourings.
Nylon is a synthetic material; it is not from nature.
My new car really eats up petrol.
There are reports that some gas stations have run out of gas.
- a gas station 加油站
The price of gasoline is unstable.
Petroleum is an important natural resource.
Hohhot is a frigid city in winter.